According to Fridkin and Kenney, “negative campaigning is not uniform.” The mechanics related to negative advertising are based on three criteria:
1. The content of the negative message (issue driven vs. personality driven)
2. The source of the message (who’s running the ad: a candidate or an outside group)
3. The characteristics of the citizens hearing the message (political novices)
Which of the criteria above is the most important factor as to how successful a negative message will be?